The unprecedented effects of COVID-19 have been problematic for hotels. Therefore, implementing a performance measurement system (PMS) has become critical for hotel organisations. This study thus examined how the balanced scorecard (BSC) as a strategic PMS has a function in revealing hotel performance. Two contextual factors of hotels—external environmental uncertainty (EEU) and decentralised decision-making—were also investigated to understand their effects on the use of the BSC, which, in turn, determines hotel performance. A survey was conducted involving 145 four- and five-star hotels in Turkey. Partial least squares structural equation modelling was used to test the hypotheses. It was found that EEU is significantly related to decentralised decision-making but not to the BSC. Meanwhile, the BSC does not have an indirect effect on the relationship between EEU and hotel performance; however, it was found to act as a mediator between the decentralisation of decision-making and hotel performance. Finally, decentralised decision-making was found to act as a mediator between EEU and the BSC.